The Arctic Ocean global ocean acidification "magnifier"

09 2018 27 July 08:32 source: Science Daily
 

The staff at the ice station samples. The photo of Ouyang

A range of more than 12000 nautical miles, the implementation of China's ninth Arctic scientific expedition of the "Snow Dragon", September 26th - China polar center back to the home port terminal in Shanghai.

In this expedition, expedition to the "Snow Dragon" as a platform, around the problem of ocean acidification and other hot spots, in-depth full range monitoring.

What is the ocean acidification? What is of particular significance in the study of the Arctic Ocean Acidification? At present what difficulties the Arctic Ocean Acidification research? Science and Technology Daily reporter interviewed stakeholders.

Full range monitoring Arctic Ocean water pH value

Global warming and the calamity with cause, ocean acidification also stems from the human excessive emissions of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.

The difference is that global warming is due to the greenhouse effect of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, ocean acidification is carbon dioxide and water into the sea in a chemical reaction, resulting in a large number of carbonate and hydrogen ions into the Arctic soda". With the increasing carbon dioxide dissolved in seawater, seawater pH value and calcium carbonate saturation continued to decline.

Underway measurement is an important part of the ocean acidification research. Because of this, the Ministry of natural resources of marine three assistant researcher Qi article, starting from Shanghai, after the sea of Japan, sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea, the Arctic sea, until the high latitude, from the Arctic Ocean to return to Shanghai, "it is of special significance for the voyage Snow Dragon 69 days.

The boat went out, with high precision pH hull with moving observation system, every 20 minutes, we can get high spatial resolution data of surface water in the preliminary statistics, the Arctic expedition voyage data obtained high resolution pH go more than 2000 points across the Arctic, large scale multi latitude and longitude of the." Reporter Qi told no..

Ocean acidification is a very slow process, if the accuracy of this change can not see. Qi said, in addition to the expedition go pH navigation system can full route monitoring, also set up more than 40 hydrological stations. Hydrological stations will be sampling, weighing more than 200 kilograms of CTD into the sea related operations. CTD consists of 24 10 liter water bottles and some test mining equipment. Each down to a certain depth, collecting bottle will automatically collect water samples. Onboard computer lab will receive and display real-time data to the ocean observation instrument.

The Qi told reporters that the operation of CTD, sinking to 4000 meters of the sea, generally only after more than 4 hours to finish the homework. Although the sampling workload, is the most reliable means of ocean acidification full depth data. In addition, the surface hydrological stations can also go and navigation data correction, ensure the reliability of data precision measurements.

In order to understand the status of seawater acidification under the sea ice cover, this study set 9 short-term ice stations and 1 long-term ice stations. When the ship arrives at a certain ice station, the staff will take down from the ship's boat, to the sea ice, with ice coring and sampling method, semi automatic water sampling system to collect samples, and the use of marine environment multi parameter analyzer, on-site analysis of temperature and salinity. But the most direct way to work is the ice station on ice driving mechanism of acidification.

Acidification than Atlantic or Pacific etc. 4 times faster than

1999, approved by the State Council, China's first Arctic scientific expedition aboard the "Snow Dragon polar scientific icebreaker Arctic voyage. The expedition mission, the ocean acidification research now is still a lot of people are familiar with the included, when it is the leader and chief scientist researcher Chen Liqi presided.

In 80s, as China's first selected to one of the scholars studying global change science, Chen Liqi participated in the "global plan of air sea experiment plan". A lot of research and practice made him keenly aware that the effect of human activities on global change, change rate is close to and exceed the strength and natural changes.

"From the industrial to the beginning of this century, the average ocean pH decreased 0.1 of the time, from every hundred years units into every decade." Study on the mind, Chen Liqi recalls, was that, in the background of global change, as the area has the advantages of simple structure, changes of climate and environment are the most sensitive ecosystems, the Arctic Ocean will be the first to the induction acidification accelerated and amplified.

Over the past 20 years, the Arctic warming is 6.7 times the average global warming. The rapid warming caused massive melting of Arctic sea ice, every summer open water area more than 10 million square kilometers, the high concentration of carbon dioxide to Arctic seawater intrusion, resulting in the increase in the acidity of the water.

At the same time, the Arctic Ocean and atmospheric circulation modes of the global change and Arctic warming caused by abnormal, let the Arctic Ocean Acidification one disaster after another. The Arctic sea ice cover rapid retreat, carrying the "Pacific induced acidification of seawater intrusion of large scale corrosion", which is the main reason leading to the rapid expansion of the Arctic Ocean Acidification of seawater.

Now a number of studies have shown that the Arctic Ocean is the global leader in ocean acidification".

"The Arctic is first so rapid and large scale, long time ocean acidification aggravated we observed, 4 times faster than in the Pacific or the Atlantic observations." Qi said, after the 9 Arctic expedition, based on precise analysis on all across the Arctic ocean voyage data over the past 20 years, based on the data of China's Arctic expedition voyage data integration after the discovery, the Arctic Ocean Acidification water fast expansion by every year 1.5% speed, and estimate the acidified water will cover the entire Arctic Ocean in the middle of this century.

The global observation network, to speak with the data

2016, a news caused concern. In the east coast of Australia stretches 2300 kilometers of the "national treasure" of Great Barrier Reef, due to large-scale coral bleaching, has resulted in the northern and central region of about 35% coral death or near death. Part of the coral reef is the most serious albinism, more than half of the coral is dead; the remaining coral in part from albino returned to normal, the proportion of deaths will rise further.

Effects of ocean acidification caused by breaking the geographical boundaries.

In the Arctic, wing foot class conch is an important part of the Arctic food chain, salmon is an important food and Arctic herring. The Arctic Ocean Acidification assessment released in 2013: "summary for policymakers", that is the Arctic ocean acidification, and pose a threat to the marine and fishery resources.

Qi article explained, while the pH value is low in seawater, in order to protect themselves, these creatures grow more and more small calcification, more thick shell. As bait, their value will be decreased, which will affect fisheries and aquaculture, and destroy the whole ecosystem through the food chain.

From the horizontal point of view, from the beginning of the third Arctic expedition, China's Arctic expedition research acidification installed ship underway CO2 observation system, not only can change ocean uptake and potential of carbon dioxide, but also can provide important data for the assessment of ocean acidification; Sino US international cooperation based on the fourth Arctic Expedition net community productivity development the ship observation system, expansion of the biological process impact on ocean acidification research and contribution assessment.

The Qi said, the current ocean acidification into the global ecological crisis, although in the Arctic Ocean Acidification research carried out with "leaf and Zhiqiu" importance, but also facing difficulties, data is a major bottleneck.

At present, from the European Union and the United States, Canada, Japan and South Korea and other scientists are on the Arctic ocean acidification has given great attention, and the Arctic continental shelf sea and the southern basin acidification status, sea ice, biological process, the Pacific winter water invasion influence were studied. In the face of one of the regions most lack of global ocean research, these researchers are also suffering from the high spatial and temporal scale data.

A few years ago, China proposed to the Arctic Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean Acidification observation network plan key sea areas (nPAOA-ON). "Our study shows that the Arctic ocean acidification, in driving under global climate change and ocean acidification without borders, human beings need to focus on the typical areas of acidizing real-time monitoring, global observation network and the evaluation on acidification trend and impact, response and mitigation measures to protect marine ecological barrier construction." Chen Liqi said.

The expedition, China also invited the French and American scientists, take the snow dragon collection of ocean acidification data, to carry out scientific cooperation on the global environmental issues.

"In the present study, ocean acidification is still difficult to assess the consequences of the damage." But the Qi is sure to understand the acidification on marine ecosystems means what, to speak with the data, to carry out research on long-term monitoring. (Chen Yu)

(commissioning editor: Jiang Shumin (Intern), Xiong Xu)

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