"Ice road" tilt the Arctic spring tide

2018 09 30 April 09:08 source: 138479.xyz - People's Daily Overseas Edition
 
Original title: "ice road" ("tilt the Arctic spring Memorial The Belt and Road" initiative and the 5th anniversary series of reports)

2017 8, 9 June, Russian scientist organization of the first joint Arctic expedition.

Pictures from the network

The Arctic northeast passage (Hong Xian) and traditional channel (blue) diagram.

Pictures from the network

"Interoperability" is one of the key points of constructing "The Belt and Road". In the countries along the highway, airport, port to upgrade infrastructure, promote interoperability at the same time, a special channel in recent years gradually into people's vision, it started in their own way to communicate something, Unicom world. This is the North channel.

If the greenhouse effect caused global warming trend at present can only be delayed to stop it, then we work together to implement the agreement on climate change at the same time, should seek to rising temperatures, melting ice may bring new opportunities. When the Arctic was daunting snow world, a little warm across the ice began to melt, hitherto unknown Arctic waterways misogynist.

If the 15 century the opening of new routes and the discovery of America opened the process of globalization of human society in the true sense, then misogynist Arctic waterways is a new opportunity for the 21 century globalization. It is the Western Europe, Asia Pacific and Northern Europe connected to the unique geographical advantages.

In the historical coordinate of the development of the times and historical trend of globalization Chinese evolution, put forward the situation to build a "The Belt and Road" initiative, and the Arctic waterways as natural extension The Belt and Road ". On July 2017, Chinese and Russian leaders proposed to carry out the Arctic channel cooperation, to jointly build the Silk Road on the ice". Released in January 2018 "Chinese Arctic policy" white paper made it clear that the Chinese spirit of "basic principles of respect, cooperation and win-win, sustainable", will depend on the development and utilization of the Arctic passage, with all parties to build "Silk Road on the ice".

Communicate what is in the ascendant

Recently, a ship called "grace" Chinese ship caused the British "times" website and other media reports focused. The ship from Lianyungang to Jiangsu Chinese, Western and Northern European ports cargo ships have what in particular? Read carefully is not difficult to find, these media are not interested in large-scale wind power generation equipment Tian'en "loading, but featured two.

The ship is an unusual way to go. Other ships usually sail southward across the Malacca Strait, India ocean, Suez canal or bypass the southern tip of Africa to Cape of Good Hope and Western and Northern Europe. "Grace" from August 4th from the dock, the way north through the Bering Strait into the Arctic Ocean, West, west along the northern coastal road to Russia, the nordic. This is the Arctic northeast passage.

The two is the ship breaking juehuoer. Although it is the height of summer, the Arctic challenge the new route will still have the ability to break the general vessel without line. "Grace" is a high grade ice Chinese independent design, independent of the construction of multipurpose ships, sailing on 0.8 meters of ice thickness. It is dependent on the ice juehuoer, "grace" to overcome the obstacles along the ice, arrived in Sweden, Holland and France, completed the mission.

The international media to see from the above two points, Chinese shipping industry not only put more eyes on the Arctic waterway, and with the increasing of Arctic route navigation ability, shorten the China from ports to northern and Western Europe sailing time, reduce the transportation cost.

The emerging Arctic channel is ushering in a growing number of China fleet. According to reports, Chinese sent the first ship through the Arctic freighter "Yongsheng" in 2013. The ship was an icebreaker's help, to overcome the dangerous condition of ice block, arrived in Holland Rotterdam port. Since then, Chinese has sent about 10 ships through the Arctic northeast passage task execution. According to COSCO special transport Limited by Share Ltd statistics, the company ships after this route arrived in Belgium, Holland, West Finland, Germany, Britain, Belarus, Russia, Denmark, Norway and other 9 countries, has saved more than 6900 tons of fuel, shorten the shipment for more than 220 days.

In the "The Belt and Road" like a raging fire building boom in the background, along the Arctic northeast passage by some countries such as Russia as a "natural extension of The Belt and Road", is expected to become a new channel and new route in northwest Europe and the Far East Sea trade. According to statistics, in 2017, the freight volume of the Arctic northeast passage than in 2013 increased more than 10 times. Customer delivery time saved at least 8 days, save up to 30 days.

The first expedition, contributed

The development situation of the Arctic waterway just unfolding not easily won. Because most of the high latitude Arctic waterway located within the Arctic Circle, once throughout the year in a frozen state, under the background of global warming, although the ice on the whole is beneficial to navigation, but the safety of navigation depends on many factors. For example, accurate grasp of ice along the hydrological changes, the full cognition of the waterway environment; for example, a profound understanding of the changes of climate and weather in the Arctic region, the construction and repair of waterway infrastructure. Over the years, Chinese spare no effort to increase efforts in the Arctic expedition in the Arctic, efforts to promote awareness, to make their own contribution to the opening of the Arctic waterway.

In the early 90s, Chinese scientists have carried out multidisciplinary scientific investigation, grasp the Arctic Change first-hand information and scientific data, promote the common interests of the north and between the state and the willingness to cooperate, laid the foundation for the scientific knowledge to promote the "Silk Road" on the ice. China for the first time since 1999 to organize large Arctic scientific expedition since the "Snow Dragon" as the main platform for the expedition, Arctic sea ice, ocean and atmospheric changes and Chinese with climate change relations, has launched the 9 Arctic expedition, the north pole of the Yellow River scientific research station construction, promote the human in the Arctic the full range of knowledge.

Open up in the Arctic, during the fifth Arctic expedition in 2012, "Snow Dragon" the success of the inaugural northeast passage, takes about 276 hours, a total distance of 2946 nautical miles. During the eighth Arctic expedition in 2017, "Snow Dragon" through the central channel that pole waterway, the northwest passage and carried out trial Arctic investigation. So far, China realized the Arctic route three routes "through" route area of hydrology, ocean currents, ice, weather and other conditions were investigated and recorded, not only formed the rich achievements in scientific research, and on this basis, also issued a special service business guide of the Arctic waterways. For example, by the end of 2017, China completed "the Arctic northeast passage Communication Guide", in combination with the graphic, marked by the Bering Strait to the Arctic northeast passage along the 17 main distribution of coastal radio stations and open business since the eastern coast of China, divided into China, South Korea, Japan, Russia, Europe 5 parts. Guide for sailing staff to fully understand the Arctic northeast leg communications security, provides an important reference for the Arctic northeast passage of ship transportation safety, is an important public service Chinese for international shipping industry.

Open Arctic, create "ice road" is an international career, Chinese is committed to work together with the countries concerned to jointly promote. After, following the 2016 Sino Russian joint Arctic expedition recently carried out for the first time, "the 2018 Sino Russian joint Arctic scientific expedition Voyage ', within the next two months, the expedition will cross the sea of Japan, sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea and the Bering Strait into the Russian Laptev Sea, East Siberia sea and Chukotka sea, to carry out comprehensive investigation of marine geology, physical oceanography, marine chemistry and marine biology and other disciplines, the expedition route will pass through" the key of sea ice on the Silk Road ", to provide stronger support for the construction of science and technology on ice" Silk Road ".

Golden waterway, a long way to go

After years of exploration and construction, the Arctic waterway has formed the navigation ability, the growth of new global shipping route from becoming international but just unfolding, the "golden waterway" is still a long way to go, the construction of western countries benefit on ice "Silk Road" is still a long way to go.

Senior Engineer Liu Lei Tianjin maritime surveying and Mapping Center pointed out that, in general, due to the special climatic conditions, the Arctic waterway is still facing some traffic constraints. For example, the key factors affecting the ship's sea ice information content available is relatively single, mainly concentrated in the ice coverage, the lack of sea ice concentration and thickness, the development trend of information. For example, the weather forecast although the relative navigation information more timely, but the lack of rain and fog and short-time forecast.

Affected by natural conditions, coastal shipping policy, resource development and other factors, the 3 route is the Northeast passage, the northwest passage and wear polar channel development is very uneven, at different stages of development. Chinese Polar Research Center Director Yang Huigen said that at present, the Northeast passage is the fastest, bulk carriers and oil and gas wheel transit has formed a small scale operations; the northwest passage times, trying to bulk cargo transportation resources; the central channel is relatively slow, but the traffic potential began to receive more and more attention.

Liu Lei has been involved in a period of 110 days on navigation condition and Chinese merchant maritime security requirements for the Arctic northeast passage, he combines his own research experience, from the perspective of Chinese maritime maritime security mechanism proposed to create "ice road" proposal.

One is the coordination and integration of domestic scientific research institutes, enterprises and institutions in hydrology, meteorology, sea ice forecast, communication services and other aspects of the resources and experience to build a unified force of the Arctic route navigation system.

The two is to adapt to the Arctic navigation by sea ice influence route change adjustment, establish communication and coordination mechanism, implementation of nautical publications and hydrological information, meteorological ice information exchange and sharing, to provide timely information services for dynamic navigation.

Three is to establish and promote the implementation of the unified rules of the Arctic route navigation, ship common standard navigation risk assessment and emergency plan, rich navigation guide, a light table, tide table nautical publications category, establish unobstructed access to correct information.

The four is to strengthen the Arctic navigation, maritime security and maritime service personnel, promote personnel exchanges, communication, training, implementation of the unified rules of navigation, maritime security service standards through the exchange of personnel. (Zhang Baoshu)

(commissioning editor: Jiang Hongyu (Intern), Yuan Bo)

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